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A Milwaukee County park on Lake Michigan may be threatened by a Cudahy gun club’s new shooting range.

A persistent, hollow rat-a-tat-tat echoed from somewhere unseen in the woods. Clearly a woodpecker; seemingly a large one. Then, close by, a lighter tapping drew my eye upwards. Short bursts, repeated at irregular intervals. A small downy woodpecker flitted along the tree line. Suddenly it was directly overhead, tapping a dead branch. In a moment it was gone. Wildlife enthusiasts live for such ephemeral moments.

A downy woodpecker plies its trade in the canopy overhead. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

A downy woodpecker plies its trade in the canopy overhead. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

I had come to Warnimont Park in early April with my friend Karen Johnson, a birder who—unlike me—can tell a downy woodpecker from a red-bellied one just by the sound it makes. We were hoping to hear and see a few of the migrating birds that congregate in Warnimont on their annual trek north from distant wintering areas.

One of six trap machine positions at the Cudahy Sportsmen’s Club overlooking Lake Michigan. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

One of six trap machine positions at the Cudahy Sportsmen’s Club overlooking Lake Michigan. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

At its north end, next to Warnimont Golf Course, the park currently has a shooting range that is slated to close. Operated by the 83-year-old Cudahy Sportsmen’s Club (CSC), the range has been used for decades by gun owners and, occasionally, by local law-enforcement. It also has been a magnet for controversy. Its bluff-top location causes lead shot to be deposited into Lake Michigan, a serious hazard to aquatic wildlife as well as a violation of both the federal Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation Recovery Act. As a result, the Milwaukee County Parks Department finally terminated the Cudahy Sportsmen’s lease in November, 2014.

When it faced identical circumstances, the Milwaukee Gun Club, once located on the lakeshore at the north end of Lincoln Memorial Drive, was compelled to close in 1992. At Warnimont, the Parks Department granted the club a one-year extension, allowing operations to continue with the stipulation that steel be used instead of lead shot. But a new controversy looms over the club’s plan to relocate.

This meadow would be cleared if the proposed shooting range is approved. Photo by Eddee Daniel

This meadow would be cleared if the proposed shooting range is approved. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

Karen and I continued walking along the winding Oak Leaf Trail. The woodland thins and opens into a broad meadow dotted with low shrubs. Individually, the woodland and the meadow provide excellent cover and distinct habitats for a wide variety of local and migrating birds. Together, they create a remarkably diverse ecosystem, one that’s hard to match in Milwaukee County. The convergence of two habitats creates what naturalists call an ecotone or a point of transition. The mingling of species that occurs in an ecotone makes for a particularly rich environment for wildlife. This is what draws so many birders to Warnimont.

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The place where two distinct habitats such as woodland and meadow meet, called an ecotone, is especially productive wildlife habitat. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

The Cudahy Sportsmen’s Club would like to create its new shooting range smack in the center of this county park’s most exquisite and irreplaceable natural area. According to CSC president Tom Ahmad, the design of the range would include six trap and skeet machines, a tall shot curtain and an earth berm between the range and the bluff. The curtain and berm are necessary to protect off-road cyclists, hikers and dog-walkers who frequent the bluff-top path. They also would facilitate clean up of plastic shot wads and broken clay targets, which has been another point of contention at the current site. Bright, often toxic fragments of targets litter the steep, deeply eroded escarpment and plastic wads drift onto popular beaches below.

Shotgun casings litter the edge of the bluff at the Cudahy Sportsmen’s Club. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

Shotgun casings litter the edge of the bluff at the Cudahy Sportsmen’s Club. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

To the untrained or utilitarian eye, a meadow in a park might seem like the ideal place to develop—unruly grass in an already open space. That’s one of the reasons upland meadows and prairies are among the most endangered habitats in the country. But many bird species require precisely those conditions. Its proximity to the Lake Michigan flyway makes Warnimont Park especially attractive to seasonal migrants. The prospect of bulldozing this exceptional landscape—a jewel in Milwaukee County’s park system—has ignited passionate opposition.

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Members of the local chapter of the Audubon Society are incensed. The chapter has posted a petition online opposing the proposed location of the shooting range, addressed to Milwaukee County Supervisor Patricia Jursik, whose jurisdiction includes Cudahy. The petition has more than 500 signatures, and birders are not the only vocal opponents.

Jursik says she has received calls from people opposed to the proposal “for all kinds of reasons.” Park neighbors are alarmed that the already disturbing noise of shooting would be moved closer to homes near S. Lake Drive. Aurora St. Luke’s South Shore Hospital on S. Lake Dr. is “very concerned” about it, Jursik says.

Warnimont’s diversity extends to its human as well as its avian visitors. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

Warnimont’s diversity extends to its human as well as its avian visitors. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

The gun club proposal – which has not yet been formally submitted, according to Guy Smith, chief of operations for Milwaukee County Parks – would clear-cut a very sensitive ecological area of mixed conifers, hardwoods, meadow, and one of the highest points on the western shore of Lake Michigan. It would also move the Oak Leaf Trail away from the rugged scenery along the bluff to a new route adjacent to S. Lake Drive, thus diminishing the recreational experience.

Milwaukee County is under no obligation to provide a place for the gun club, according to Guy Smith, chief of operations for Milwaukee County Parks. The club has other options on private land. Jursik says the Winchester Gun Club in Racine is willing to accommodate them.

Viewing waterfowl from the bluff overlooking Lake Michigan. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

Viewing waterfowl from the bluff overlooking Lake Michigan. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

Gun club members have framed their position as a gun rights issue. “This is totally false,” says Jursik. “It has nothing to do with second amendment rights.” The issue is appropriate land use in a public park.

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When the plan was first announced, the club mounted a highly visible public relations campaign to muster support, enlisting the aid of talk radio. After an initial flurry of calls from club supporters, says Jursik, “in the last two-to-three months, all of my calls have been in opposition.”

Parks Director John Dargle expects a decision to be made by June, 2016, once a detailed proposal is submitted and after engineering and environmental impact studies and public hearings are completed.

The migrating dark-eyed junco is an early arrival to the meadow. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

The dark-eyed junco. Photo by Eddee Daniel.

Although I’ve cycled through Warnimont many times, I had never stopped to explore it until I learned of this issue. I’ve returned several times in the past month. I’ve seen the snow melt away and the first blush of spring buds begin to green the woodlands. Thanks to several members of the Audubon Society, I’ve seen a wider variety of birds than I knew existed—and heard many more that went unseen. I’m looking forward to May when the buds will have opened, grasses will have greened, and a full array of migratory birds will arrive.

For more of Eddee Daniel’s photos from Warnimont Park, click here.

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